Методические указания по выполнению практических работ по дисциплине Английский язык



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Практическая работа № 36.

Тема: Принципы передачи железнодорожных сигналов.

Цель: активизация употребления новых терминов.

Перечень оборудования для проведения работы:тетрадь, письменные принадлежности, словарь.

Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RAILWAY SIGNALING

No department of railways has been more developed by modern technology than signaling and telecommunications. Color light signals, electrical operation of signals and points, track-circuiting, route-setting panel control, automatic train operation, computer-based centralized traffic control (CTC) – these are the basic elements of up-to-date signaling. The method of operating long railway lines by CTC began in the USA in 1927. The principle is that at the central point the operator has a diagram showing him where every train is and he can control the whole section of the line – possiblyof two or three hundred miles – from his control console. The operator can see and control the overall track circuit. On modern railways the main line and station approaches are controlled from a single control center to provide regular traffic and avoid delays. To control a whole trunk line from one place a single control centre was first introduced in Japan, on the New Tokaido Line. The entire line between Tokyo and Osaka is wholly controlled from the general control center located in Tokyo. It’s well-known that conventional CTC uses conventional relays. Practical railway experience shows that it takes much time to transmit information therefore the Japanese National Railways have developed a new system using transistors and diodes. This system proves to be more reliable; besides that it is more economical because it helps to save time: it takes about one second to scan indications for all tracks. At present up-to-date electronic equipment including a digital computer is widely used to automate train operation and to improve the quality of railway service.



Answer the following questions to the text:

1. Do railway signaling and communications have the most advanced technologies and equipment?

2. What are the basic elements of up-to-date signaling? Which of them is the latest one? What’s your opinion on the subject?

3. What does the abbreviation CTC mean?

4. What country was the first to use CTC on its railways?

5. What kind of a diagram does the operator have on his (her) control console?

6. How long may be the section of the main line controlled from the single control centre?

7. What approaches are controlled from a single control centre?

8. Why is CTC so important for railways?

9. What railways began to control a whole trunk line by means of CTC?

10. What devices had been used to transmit information before the Japanese National Railways developed a new system using transistors and diodes?

11. Why are transistors and diodes more reliable than relays?

12. What is the latest development used to automate train operation and improve the quality of railway service?
Отчет о проделанной работе: письменный перевод текста и ответы на вопросы.

Практическая работа № 37.

Тема: Железнодорожная автоматизация.

Цель: активизация употребления новых терминов.

Перечень оборудования для проведения работы:тетрадь, письменные принадлежности, словарь.

Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст, составьте вопросы к тексту.

RAILWAY AUTOMATION

At present control of high-speed trains is semi-automatic since they are automatically forced to comply with permissible speeds at any instant. Stops at station platforms are under the driver’s control. The state of the line is continuously surveyed and information is transmitted at high speed to the control centre. Each train automatically identifies itself by generating a unique frequency as it passes fixed ground equipment and the information is displayed on the control panel at Tokyo. Trains entering stations automatically set the points system according to classification, i.e. whether super express, express or freight. One interesting but simple safety feature enables the operator on the line to stop the train in an emergency. It consists of push-button switches placed at intervals of 50m. Operation of the switch completes the circuit, and the consequent indication in the driver’s cab of an approaching train causes the brakes to be applied automatically when at an appropriate distance from the danger position. All the circuits are fail-safe, and the possibility of an accident due to human error has been virtually eliminated. Great work is being carried out in order to improve circuits performance. It means introduction of such techniques as programmed control, obstacle detection by a guided radar, controlled braking to a fixed point and centralized computer control. Extensive research is under way in our country to utilize television technique in industry, science and agriculture. Some years ago one of the research institutes of our country designed a television apparatus which is now used in railway transport to record the serial numbers of freight cars arriving at a station. As a train pulls in at a station, somewhere at a distance of ten kilometers an operator sees this train on a screen of his television set. The operator reads aloud the serial number of the freight cars and they are recorded by a tape recorder. On another television set the operator can see all the railway lines in a station. The operator only has to press the button and another station will appear on the screen. These installations are used in classifications yards for shunting operations. The Central Research Institute of the Railways Ministry is designing a new television apparatus which will enable engine drivers “to see” the condition of the freight car even when it is dark.



Отчетопроделаннойработе: переведентекст, составленывопросыктексту.

Практическая работа № 38.

Тема: Индуктивная система.

Цель: совершенствование лексических навыков, обогащение словарного запаса терминами по специальности.

Перечень оборудования для проведения работы:тетрадь, письменные принадлежности, словарь.

Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст, выполните упражнение к тексту.

INDUCTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM

For use on busy lines various safety devices are additionally available. One of these is the inductive train control. Each signal on a section of line equipped with this system has a device which activates the brakes of a passing train. The locomotive is provided with a ”transmitter” which has an iron-core coil and a condenser. This oscillating circuit is tuned to 2000 cycles/sec. and is supplied with current from a high-frequency generator to which the coil of an electromagnet for a relay is connected. The high-frequency generator is driven by an electric motor or a small steam turbine which also drives a 24-volt direct-currentdynamo. A second relay and two pilot lamps are connected to this dynamo. When the system is in operation, the high-frequency generator supplies current to the oscillating circuit of the locomotive and to the high-frequency relay, so that the armature of the latter is attracted by the electromagnet and allows current to flow through the 24-volt direct-current relay. When thus energized, the relay interrupts a flow of current to the actuating electromagnet of a valve. The signal beside the railway track isalso equipped with an oscillating circuit tuned to 2000 cycles/sec. When the signal is at “safe”, its oscillating circuit is short-circuited and has no effect on the passing locomotive. However, if the signal is at “stop” and the train nevertheless fails to stop, the oscillating circuit of the signal will resonate in tune with that of the passing locomotive and withdraw so much energy from the latter circuit that the armature of the high-frequency relay is no longer sufficiently strongly attracted by the electromagnet and is therefore released. This in turn cuts off supply of current to the 24-volt relay, which then likewise (также) releases its armature. This completes the electric circuit to the electro-magnet that controls the monitoring valve. When this happens, the monitoring valve causes the brakes to be applied and the driving motor of the locomotive to be switched. At the same time, the pilot lamp “a” goes out and the lamp “b” lights up.



Copy the following words. One word in line doesn’t belong to the group. Cross out the odd word and explain your choice.

1) a train, a plane, an automobile, a rail car.

2) steam, diesel, electric air.

3) a second, an hour, a mile, a minute.

4) current, voltage, time, resistance.

5) relay, transistor, diode, photo.

6) turbine, motor, generator, electron.

7) a railway, a highway, a runway, a road.



Отчет о проделанной работе: письменно переведен текст, выполнено упражнение.

Практическая работа № 39.

Тема: Виды систем управления.

Цель: совершенствование лексических навыков, обогащение словарного запаса терминами по специальности.

Перечень оборудования для проведения работы:тетрадь, письменные принадлежности, словарь.

Задание: прочитайте текст, выразите свое мнение о прочитанном.

INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM

On September 30, 2004 Kowloon–Canton Railway Corporation put intooperation a fully integrated control and communications system (ICCS), as a part of the upgrading of its 34 km East Rail corridor from Kowloon to Lo Wu. With traffic on this two-track railway forecast to exceed 1 million passengers per day by 2006, KCRC decided to resignal the line and fit automatic train protection to raise capacity from 20 to 30 trains/h in each direction. Four contracts were to cover the signaling, a new control centre, track and catenary upgrading and a major track reconstruction at Pak Shek Kok. The main control centre at KCRC’s Fo Tan headquarters controls the line via a wide area optical fibre network linking 13 stations. ICCS functions include:

- automatic route setting;

- automatic dispatching and regulation;

- electric and traction power control;

- general and secure telephone links;

- general and train radio links;

- automatic and manual passenger information displays and public address;

- headway clock control;

- power plant monitoring;

- CCTV monitoring of level crossings.

All of these are handled by a common screen-based operator interface. The system architecture guarantees an availability of 99-99.8%. The workstations are based on easily-upgradeable PC hardware running a reliable Unix operating system and Unix-based software. All workstations are identical, with access controlled by user. Train control zones are selectable for each operator. Telephone and radio calls are automaticallyrouted to operators with the selected control zones. The 80 km Fibre Distributed Data Interface optical fibre network uses reliable industrial standard, DC-powered, three-port concentrators. Station Information Workstations at all locations provide the same real-time displays and system response times as seen by the controllers inthe control center. Passenger Display Units feature two-line back-to-backhigh brightness LED displays which show both Chinese and English messages. Extensive system-wide built-in diagnostic displays are matched with tools that allow remote diagnosis and error finding from the control centre.



Give a short summary of the text. The following phrases may be helpful:

The headline of the text (article) is … - Текст(статья) называется…

The article deals with … - Статья рассматривает(проблемы) …

The point of the article is that … - Суть статьи заключается в том, что…

Thearticlepaysspecialattentionto … - Статьяобращаетособоевниманиена…

Of great (special) interest is (that) … - Особыйинтереспредставляетто, что…

My opinion is … - Ясчитаю…

Idoubtthat … - Ясомневаюсь, что…

It’s common knowledge that… - Общеизвестно, что…

I might as well add that … - Я мог бы также добавить, что…

Needless to say that … - Нет необходимости говорить, что…

There are many pros and cons here. – Здесьмногозаипротив.

On the one hand … - Соднойстороны, …

On the other hand … - Сдругойстороны, …

I’m sure that … - Яуверен, что…

In conclusion I’d like to … - Взаключениеяхотелбы…



Отчет о проделанной работе: письменно представлено свое мнение о тексте, устный опрос.




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