МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ РАЗРАБОТКА для преподавателя
ЦЕЛИ УРОКА: I. Обучающие цели: 1. Систематизировать знания учащихся по отдельным разделам грамматики (вопросительные предложения).
2. Добиться усвоения учащимися грамматических правил.
3. Обучить учащихся употреблять выученные правила в речи.
II. Воспитательные цели: 1. Воспитывать добросовестное отношение учащихся к обучению, формировать чувство ответственности за качество выполняемой работы.
Данная разработка составлена в соответствии с Государственными требованиями к содержанию и уровню подготовки выпускников средних учебных заведений по дисциплине "Иностранный язык", на основе минимума английской лексики для медицинских колледжей. Основной целью разработки является систематизация знаний по грамматике по теме вопросительные предложения. Предлагаемые упражнения помогут преподавателю выработать у студентов умения задавать разные типы вопросов и более прочные грамматические навыки по теме.
Данная методическая разработка окажет методическую помощь в усвоении грамматического материала и поможет студентам быстрее овладеть им. В ней подобраны задания для закрепления материала и для проверки знаний студентов.
СТАНДАРТ ПО ТЕМЕ
ДОЛЖЕН ЗНАТЬ: 1. Изучаемые грамматические правила.
2. Порядок слов в вопросительных предложениях.
ДОЛЖЕН УМЕТЬ: 1. Задавать различные вопросы к предложению, используя изученные грамматические правила.
2. Задавать вопросы к тексту без грамматических ошибок.
2. Альтернативный вопрос (an alternative question)
3. Разделительный вопрос (a disjunctive question)
4. Специальный вопрос (а special question)
ОБЩИЙ ВОПРОС - это вопрос ко всему предложению, требующий ответа "да" или "нет". Порядок слов в общих вопросах следующий:
а) в предложениях с модальными глаголами "can", "may", "must" с глаголами "to be", "to have", являющимися смысловыми глаголами, в Present Indefinite u Past Indefinite, эти глаголы ставятся в начале предложения перед подлежащим.
-Are you a student? - Yes, I am.
-Have you a sister? - No, I haven't.
-May I take your pen? - Yes, you may.
Примечание: вопросительные предложения с глаголом "to have " образуются также и со вспомогательным глаголом "to do" особенно в Past Indefinite , а также,если глагол "to have", входит в состав устойчивых выражений (to have dinner, to have a rest и т.д.) и в модальном значении (как заместитель глагола "must").
Did you have English books?
Do the Browns have dinner at home?
Did you have to go there yesterday?
б) для образования общих вопросов в Present и Рast Indefinite (кроме перечисленных случаев) употребляется вспомогательный, глагол "to do", в соответствующем лице и времени, который ставится перед подлежащим (а также в случаях, перечисленных в примечании).
- Do you like music? - Yes, I do.
- Does Nick like to read? - No, he doesn't.
- Did she come, yesterday? - No, she didn't.
в) Если в состав сказуемого - входит вспомогательный глагол, то он ставится перед подлежащим.
-Will you come tomorrow? - No I shan't?
-Have your parents seen this film? - Yes, they have.
-Are they writing a letter? - Yes, they are.
-Wаs he playing tennis? - No, he wasn't
В кратких ответах употребляется тот глагол, с которого начинается общий вопрос, (в соответствующем лице, числе и времени).
Общие вопросы произносятся с повышающейся интонацией.
АЛЬТЕРНАТИВНЫЙ ВОПРОС, предполагает выбор и состоит из двух частей, соединенных союзом "or" - (или).
Первая часть вопроса до союза "or" произносится с повышающейся интонацией, вторая - с понижающейся.
- Will you go to the cinema today or tomorrow?
- Will you go to the cinema or to the theatre today?
- Will you or your sister go to the cinema today?
- Does your sister live in Moscow or not?
PAЗДЕЛИТEЛЬНЫЙ ВОПРОСсостоит из двух частей, разделенных запятой. Первая часть - повествовательное предложение, вторая - краткий вопрос, состоящий из того глагола, с которого начинается общий вопрос к данному предложению и подлежащего-местоимения. Если первая часть разделительного вопроса утвердительная, то глагол во второй части стоит в отрицательной форме, если первая часть вопроса отрицательная - в утвердительной.
- My brother goes to school every day, doesn't he?
- She doesn't like cats, does she?
- I am reading now, aren't I?
- I'm not watching TV now, am I?
- She will come on Monday, won't she?
Первая часть разделительного вопроса произносится с понижающейся интонацией, вторая - с повышающейся, если говорящий ждет ответа, или с понижающейся, если ответа не требуется.
СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫЙ ВОПРОС - это вопрос к какому-либо члену предложения, Он начинается с вопросительного слова. а) вопрос к подлежащему или его определению начинается с вопросительного слова "who" (кто), "what" (что), "whose" (чей), "which (of)" (который), которое ставится вместо подлежащего. Порядок слов как в утвердительном предложении. Глагол-сказуемое обычно согласуется с вопросительным словом в 3-ем лице единственного числа.
-Who knows English well? - My friend does.
-Which of them speaks English better? - Pete does..
-Whose sister will go to school? - My sister will.
-What is on the table? - The book is.
На вопросы к подлежащему или его определению обычно даются краткие ответы, состоящие из подлежащего и соответствующего глагола (с которого начинается общий вопрос к данному предложению) в нужном числе, лице и времени.
б) специальный вопрос к остальным членам предложения начинается с вопросительного слова (where, when, why, what , how, how much, how many, how long, what colour, whom, what kind of) , а дальше порядок слов как в общем вопросе, исключая то слово, - к которому ставится вопрос.
- When will she come?
- Why will she go to Moscow?
- How long did it take you to cook breakfast?
- What colour are the walls in your room?
- How many bоуs do you see in the yard?
Специальные вопросы произносятся с понижающейся интонацией.
1. Изучите примеры постановки вопросов к предложениям: PRESENTINDEFINITETENSE
I usually get up at 6 o'clock.
Do you usually get up at 6 o'clock?
Do you usually get up at б or at 7 o'clock?
You get up at 6 o'clock, don't you?
Who usually gets up at б o'clock?
When do you usually get up?
What do you usually do at б o'clock?
His mother likes to watch TV.
Does his mother like to watch TV?
Does his mother like -to watch TV or to read books?
His mother likes to watch TV, doesn't she?
Who likes to watch TV?
Whose mother likes to watch TV?
What does Ms Mother like to do?
THE VERB "TO BE "
in the Present Indefinite Tense
I am twenty.
Am I twenty?
Am I twenty or not? I am twenty, aren't I?
Who is twenty?
How old am I?
Her elder brother is a teacher.
Is her elder brother a teacher?
Is her elder brother a teacher or a student?
Her elder brother is a teacher, isn't he?
Who is a teacher?
Whose brother is a teacher?
What is her elder brother?
3. Wick's parents are in Stavropol.
Are Nick's parents in Stavropol?
Are Nick's parents in Stavropol or in Moscow?
Nick's parents are in Stavropol, aren't they?
Who is in Stavropol?
Whose parents are in Stavropol?
Where are Nick's parents?
4. There is a picture on the wall.
Is there a picture on the wall?
Is there a picture or a photo on the wall?
There is a picture on the wall, isn't there?
What is there on the wall?
5. There are three rooms in Ann's flat.
Are there three rooms in Ann's flat?
Are there three or two rooms in Ann's flat?
There are three rooms in Ann's flat, aren't there?
How many rooms are there in Ann's flat?
What is there in Ann's flat?,
THE VERB "TO HAVE"
in the Present Indefinite Tense
Pete and Ann have two daughters.
Have Pete and Ann two daughters?
Have Pete and Ann two daughters or two sons?
Pete and Ann have two daughters, haven't they?
Who has two daughters?
How many daughters have Pete and Ann?
2. Alexander has three friends in Minsk. Has Alexander three friends in Minsk? Has Alexander three or four friends in Minsk? Alexander has three friends in Minsk, hasn't he? Who has three friends in Minsk? How many friends has Alexander in Minsk? Where has Alexander three friends?
THE VERB "CAN"
in the Present Indefinite Tense
My younger sister can speak English.
Can my younger sister speak English?
Can my younger sister speak English or French?
My younger sister can speak English, can't she?
Who can speak English?
What can my younger sister do?
THE VERB "MUST"
in the Present Indefinite Tense
Children must go to school every day.
Must children go to school every, day?
Must children go to school every day or not?
Children must go to school every day, mustn't they?
Who must go to school every day?
What must children do everyday?
How often must children go to school?
THE VERB" MAY"
in the Present Indefinite Tense
Helen may take this pen.
May Helen take this pen?
May Helen or Kate take this pen?
Helen may take this pen, may she not?
Who may take this pen?
What may Helen do?
What may Helen take?
What pen may Helen take?
PAST INDEFINITE TENSE We lived in Leningrad 2 years ago.
Did we live in Leningrad 2 years ago?
Did we live in Leningrad 2 or 3 years ago?
We lived in Leningrad 2 years ago, didn't we?
Who lived in Leningrad 2 years ago?
Where did we live 2 years ago?
When did we live in Leningrad?
What did we do in Leningrad 2 years ago?
Helen's brother went to the South last summer.
Did Helen's brother go to the South last summer?
Did Helen's brother go to the South last summer or last autumn?
Helen's brother went to the South last summer, didn't he?
Who went to the South last summer?
Whose brother went to the South last summer?
What did Helen's brother do last summer?
When did Helen's brother go to the South?
Where did Helen's brother go to last summer?
THE VERB "TO BE"
in the Past Indefinite Tense
1. The table was in the middle of the room.
Was the table in the middle of the room?
Was the table in the middle or in the corner of the room?
The table was in the middle of the room, wasn't it?
What was in the middle of the room?
Where was the table?
2. His eyes were green.
Were his eyes green?
Were his eyes green or black?
His eyes were green, weren't they?
What was green?
Whose eyes were green?
What colour were his eyes?
3. There was some milk on the table.
Was there any milk on the table?
Was there any milk or water on the table?
There was some milk on the table, wasn't there?
What was there on the table?
How much milk was there on the table?
4. There were two rooms in my flat.
Were there two rooms in my flat?
Were there two rooms in my or in his flat?
There were two rooms in my flat, weren't there?
What was there in my flat?
How many rooms were there in my flat?
FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE 1. We shall go to the lake to swim.
Shall we go to the lake to swim?
Shall we go to the lake to swim or not?
We shall go to the lake to swim, shan't we?
Who will go to the lake to swim?
Where shall we go?
Why shall we go to the lake?
2. They will go for a walk next Saturday.
Will they go for a walk next Saturday?
Will they go for a walk next Saturday or Sunday?
They will go for a walk next Saturday, won't they?
Who will go for a walk next Saturday?
Where will they go next Saturday?
When will they go for a walk?
THE VERB "TO BE"
in the Future Indefinite Tense
1. The walls of my room will be blue.
Will the walls of my room be blue?
Will the walls of my room be blue or green?
The walls of my room will be blue, won't they?".
What will be blue?
What walls will be blue?
2. There will be ten flats in this building.
Will there be ten flats in this building?
Will there be ten or nine flats in this building?
There will be ten flats in this building, won't there?
What will there be in this building?
How many flats will there be in this building?
THE VERВ TО HAVE
in the Future Indefinite Tense
They will have little time tomorrow.
Will they have little time tomorrow?
Will they have little or much time tomorrow?
They will have little time tomorrow;' won't they?
Who will have little time tomorrow?
How much time will they have tomorrow?
When will they have little time?
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE I am watching TV now.
Am I watching TV now?
Am I watching TV or listening to the radio now?
I am watching TV now, aren't I?
Who is watching TV now?
What am I doing now?
Tom is speaking to our teacher at this moment.
Is Tom speaking to our teacher at this moment?
Is Tom or Kate speaking to our teacher at this moment?
Tom is speaking to our teacher at this moment, isn't he?
Who is speaking to our teacher at this moment?
Whom is Tom speaking to at this moment?
Whose teacher is Tom speaking to at this moment?
My brothers are waiting for me at home.
Are my brothers waiting for me at home?
Are my brothers waiting for me or for Ann at home?
My brothers are waiting for me at home, aren't they?
Who is waiting for me at home?
Whose brothers are waiting for me at home?
Where are my brothers waiting for me?
Whom are my brothers waiting for?
My brothers aren't waiting for me now.
Aren't my brothers waiting for me now?
Aren't my brothers or my parents waiting for me?
My brothers aren't waiting for me now, are they?
Who isn't waiting for me now?
Whom aren't my brothers waiting for now?
PASТСОNTINUOUS TENSE 1. I was writing a letter from 2 till 3 o'clock.
Was I writing a letter from 2 till 3 o'clock?
Was I writing or reading a letter from 2 till 3 o'clock?
I was writing a letter from 2 till 3 o'clock, wasn't I?
Who was writing a letter from 2 till 3 o'clock?
What was I doing from 2 till 3 o'clock?
What was I writing from2 till 3 o'clock?
When was I writing a letter?
2. They were playing in the garden the whole day yesterday.
Were they playing in the garden the whole day yesterday?
Were they playing or working in the garden the whole day yesterday?
They were playing in the garden/the whole day yesterday, weren't they?
Who was playing in the garden the whole day yesterday?
What were they doing in the garden the whole day yesterday?
Where were they playing the whole day yesterday?
FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE Mary will be cooking supper at 5 o'clock.
Will Mary be cooking supper at 5 o'clock?
Will Mary be cooking supper at 5 o'clock or not?
Mary will be cooking supper at 5 o'clock, won't she?
Who will be cooking supper at 5 o'clock?
What will Mary be doing at 5 o'clock?
When will Mary be cooking supper?
2. We shall be watching TV from 7 till 9 o'clock.
Shall we be watching TV from 7 till 9 o'clock?
Shall we be watching TV from 7 till 9 o'clock or not?
We shall be watching TV from 7 till 9 o'clock, shan't we?
Who will be watching TV from 7 till 9 o'clock?
What shall we be doing from 7 till 9 o'clock?
Put all types of questions to the following sentences. 1. We live in Pyatigorsk.
2. Kate studies at the Institute of Foreign languages.
3. I am Helen's sister.
4. I am not a student.
5. Jack is a good pupil.
6. We are late today.
7. There is a table in the middle of the room.
8. There are many fruit trees in our garden.
9. We have got a black dog.
10. My cousin has two children.
11. Pete and Alec can play chess.
12. We must take our exams on Monday.
13. They may go for a walk today.
14. I talked to our teacher last week.
15. My uncle saw that film yesterday.
16. He was in Paris 5 years ago.
17. My grandparents were busy on Sunday.
18. There was a large park there.
19. There were five cars in the yard.
20. She could translate articles from English into Russian easily.
21. All the pupils of our class had to come to school on that day.
22.-They might go to Leningrad after passing their exams.
23. I shall wait for you after classes.
24. My elder brother will teach German at school.
25. She won't be at home in the afternoon.
26. There will be 35 pupils in our class next year.
27. The Smiths will have dinner at 2.
28. Mary will be able to ring you up in 2 days.
29. We shall have to tell Mother about it.
30. She will be allowed to take her exam in Literature in 2 days.
31. I am reading an interesting book now.
32. Ann' is playing volley-ball now.
33. We are talking about your friend.
34. My mother was cooking supper when I came.
35. We were writing a composition the whole morning yesterday.
36. They will be discussing this film at 3 o'clock tomorrow.
37. Nick and I have cooked breakfast today.
38. My mother has bought a new dress today.
39. She has been listening to this tape since morning.
40. I had read your book by the first of September.
II. Put general questions to the following sentences: 1. He was reading the book at 7 o'clock yesterday.
2. They will go to the pictures tomorrow.
3. His brother is fond of playing the piano.
4. There were five books in the bag.
5. Mary had a nice car last year.
6. I "shall not be able to speak to him.
7. Bill wrote a letter to his friend.
8. My sister has just broken the window. 9. It has been raining for a week.
10. She wanted to pass her exam in English.
11. We usually have breakfast at 8.
III. Put alternative questions to the following sentences; 1. It often rains in autumn.
2. He has to go to the station.
3. There were many flowers in the vase.
4. He can sing English songs.
5. She went for a walk in the park.
6. I have recently found this book.
7. Nick is sleeping now.
8. Yesterday I played chess with them.
9. We shall read this book next month.
10. I am going to take my exam in July..
IV. Put disjunctive questions to the following sentences: 1. He often sleeps after dinner.
2. I am a student.
3. They have" got a beautiful daughter.
4. They will not have any time tomorrow.
6. My cousin has lost his pen.
7. There are no plates on the table.
8. They usually work in the garden in the evening.
9. He is a teacher of German.
10. My younger brother went to bed at 11 yesterday.
11. They didn't like to live in this town.
12. He is not busy now.
V. Put special questions to the following sentences: 1. My brother gets many letters.
2. We watched an interesting TV programme yesterday.
3. Somebody is singing in the room.
4. The pupils were writing a dictation when I came.
5. He has already finished reading this book.
6. The Browns will be having dinner at 3 o'clock.
7. He had to go to work at 6 o'clock in the morning.
8. His son will do his homework in the evening.
9. They have got a wonderful flat.
10. They had a nice flat.
11. The book was taken by his friend.
12. He could read Italian books in the original.
VI. Put some questions to the following sentences; 1. The Browns are having dinner now.(general; Who...)
2. He often sleeps after classes. ( alternative, disjunctive)
3. We have a good TV-set. ( general; Who...)
4. I don't know English well. ( disjunctive; Who...)
5. My friend finished his work at 5 yesterday. (general; disjunctive, Whose...)
6. We shall leave for Kiev. (disjunctive; alternative)
7. Nelly's mother has just sent a telegram. ( disjunctive; Whose..What...)
ЛИТЕРАТУРА: 1. Бонк Н.А., Котий Г.А., Лукьянова Н.А. Учебник английского языка М., Деконт+ГИС, 2010
3. А.М.Маслова, З.И.Ванштейн "Пособие по английскому языку для медицинских вузов" М., Высшая школа, 2008.
2. С.Л.Тылкина, Н.А.Темчина "Пособие по английскому языку для медицинских и фармацевтических училищ" М., Высшая школа, 2006