In order to compile the latest information about the status of IP telecommunication networks, services and applications in various countries and to understand associated technical, regulatory, economic and social challenges as well as to get views/opinions on the issues addressed by the Question 19-2/1, a draft questionnaire was prepared by the Rapporteur and Vice-Rapporteur for Question 19-2/1. After discussion, it was adopted by the Rapporteur’s Group in its meeting in 9 May 2011. Subject questionnaire was sent to relevant ITU members. Answers to the survey received from 9 developed countries, 6 transition countries, 22 developing countries and 4 least developed countries (31 July 2011). Preliminary analysis of the survey is provided below.
2. Preliminary analysis of the answers to the survey
Responses to the questionnaire on Question 19-2/1, attached as Annex 1, were received by 41 countries: 9 developed countries, 6 transition countries, 22 developing countries and 4 least developed countries. Annex 2 provides the overall statistics prepared by BDT based on the answers received. In order to provide some insight into the answers received, below is a summary of some of the main points of the survey result.
2.1 Definition and scope of “IP telecommunication (IPT) network”, “IP services” and/or “IP applications”
Regarding the question on definition and scope of “IP telecommunication (IPT) network”, “IP services” and/or “IP applications”, developed countries stated that specific definitions of the given terms are not available as they have technologically neutral legislation which covers all kinds of technology including IP based technologies. On the other hand, one third of developing countries and least developed countries provided their answer as “yes” giving some reference to their legal documents on the issue.
In general, the perception and understanding of the countries on the given terms are very similar. For instance International Telecommunications Users Group (INTUG) provided its understanding as “IP telecommunication network means a network using the Internet Protocol (IP) and IP addressing for communication. “IP service” means a service available using an IP telecommunications network. “IP Application” means an application accessible via an IP telecommunications network. The majority of the countries who responded to questionnaire stated that their existing legislation is based on the principle of technology neutrality so it is applicable to legacy and next generation networks/services. On the other hand, some of the countries stated that a revision is required in some areas (licensing, numbering, interconnection, quality of service, consumer issues etc.) on the issue (see Figure 1).
Figure 1: Status of legislation with respect to IP telecommunication networks/services
2.2 Laws/legislation on access to IPT services and VoIP
Regarding the existence of the laws/legislation in the different countries who responded to the survey which govern the access to IPT services by disabled people, from the 39 answers received, only 5 of them stated that their legislation has provisions regarding access to IPT services by disabled people. Concerning the question which sought to understand if there were specific laws/legislation in place which allow for providing VoIP services, from the 39 answers received, 16 of them generally stated that VoIP is allowed by legislation. In some countries, like Tonga, although it is not explicitly stated in the law, VoIP services are provided by the operators. The majority of countries who responded to the questionnaire stated that they have a national plan and/or strategy for the deployment of all-IP networks and that the national regulatory authority encourages telecom operators to roll-out full IP-based networks. For instance, in Latvia, the government has decided to co-finance the deployment of optical backhaul in rural areas. Furthermore, most of the countries stated that the operators are deploying or planning to deploy IP based networks.
2.3 National strategy and/or plan for the transition from IPV4 to IPV6
Concerning the national strategy and/or plan for the transition from IPV4 to IPV6, from the 38 answers received for this question, 13 of them stated that they have a plan to guide them in the transition to IPV6. For instance, the Czech Republic stated that the deadline for transition is 01/01/2011, Viet Nam stated that their deadline is 31/12/2020 and Turkey stated 31/08/2013 as their transition deadline.
2.4 Types of IPT services provided
With regards to the broad range of IPT services provided in the countries, in accordance with received responses, the main services provided in the countries are VoIP, e-services such as eGovernment, eHealth, eCommerce, eLearning, IP streaming, IPTV and nPlay bundled services (see Figure 2).
Figure 2: IPT services provided in the countries
2.5 Challenges faced by the countries in rolling out IP networks
The survey further showed that the challenges which are most significant for countries when implementing IP networks are the following. Note that these are listed with the most significant challenges first and the less significant challenges last in the list:
1. Trust and security for IPT networks and services
2. Investment cost and lack of financial resources
3. Quality of service
4. Lack of established standards
5. Existing regulatory regime
6. Inter-operability between existing and IPT networks and services
7. Lack of expertise and experience on IPT
8. Lack of specific regulations to govern IPT
9. Lack of IXP (Internet Exchange Point)
10. Technology knowledge and skilled human resources
11. Further details can be found in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Challenges when implementing IP networks
2.6 Benefits and opportunities related to the implementation of IP networks
Regarding the benefits which are most significant for the countries when implementing IP networks the following benefits were mentioned (further details can be found in Figure 4). Note that these are listed in order of significance.
1. Provision of new, converged and bundled services to the customers
3. Economic and social development
4. Low cost in service provision
5. Accessibility of public services
6. Increased productivity
Figure 4: Benefits of implementing IP networks
As for the opportunities to be encountered when implementing IP networks, services and associated applications in the counties, various issues are mentioned by the countries as opportunities. They include the following:
Ease of expansion and upgrading of the network
Greater availability of advances services
Lower costs of network development, lower service cost
Faster access and collection of information
2.7 Issues to be addressed in order to successfully introduce IP networks, services, and applications
Regarding question on the technical, regulatory, socio-economic and policy issues that need to be addressed in a country in order to introduce/deploy IP networks, services and associated applications, some of the countries stated that the regulatory frameworks to govern the implementation of IP networks, services and associated applications have to be put in place, including the issue of interoperability between the legacy network and the all IP network. In addition to these, human resource development and capacity building are stated as the issues to be addressed.
Concerning the main issues experienced in a country with the introduction and operation of IP networks, services and associated applications, various issues have been stated by countries. For instance, the main issues raised in Tonga were noted as being the unavailability of a regulatory framework and the quality of services provided to the general public. Montenegro stated that the main issue in the country is the shared use of underground ducts and global Internet access. For Eritrea, the main issues noted are the high prices and the latency of the existing IP network, as well as inadequate capability and experience of the young engineers. They further noted the need for longer training on high-end software.
The International Telecommunications Users Group (INTUG)1 stated that the major challenges affecting most regions/countries are the following:
Cost models used for determining regulated prices for significant market power (SMP) operators;
Progressive elimination of fixed and mobile termination rates;
Transparent traffic management rules to prevent discriminatory network prioritization;
Spectrum allocation processes (avoiding stealth taxation through auction fees); and
Establishing and sustaining open competition in wholesale and retail markets.
2.8 Impact of Internet Exchange Points on internet prices
In order to better understand the impact that the existence of IXP (Internet Exchange Point) have on demand and on internet prices, countries are asked whether they have an IXP in their country and if this has an effect on internet prices. From the 38 answers received, 23 of them stated that they have IXP in their countries. In Pakistan for instance, there is no IXP, however operators and ISP's have established interconnects with each other so local traffic can be routed locally, without the need to go to internet cloud and back and in this way increase costs.
2.9 Training needs in the countries
Concerning the training needs of the countries in order to introduce or to foster the use of IPT services various areas are depicted by the countries. Some of them are as follows:
Regulation of IPT services
Implementation, administration and management of all-IP networks.
Legal implications and policy issues of IPT.
Transition from IPv4 to IPv6
Allocation of IPv6 resources
IP service licensing
IP network security
Billing for IP based voice services
Internet regulatory policy
Annex 3: Composition of the Rapporteur Group for Question 192/1 ― Implementation of IP telecommunication services in developing countries
Name / Country
Mr Fabrice James Djoumessi Dontsa (Cameroon) from 2012
Ms Aysel Kandemir (Turkey)
Mr Youcef Bouzar (Algérie Télécom SPA, Algeria)
Mr Seyni Malan Faty (Senegal)
Mr Rachid Outemzabet (Algeria)
Mr Patrick Zeboua (Côte d'Ivoire)
BDT Focal Point
Mr Desire Karyabwite
Annex 4: Reports of the Rapporteurs Group Meetings for the study period 2010-2014
The reports of the Q19-2/1 Rapporteurs Group meetings for the fifth study period are available at the link http://www.itu.int/md/D10-RGQ19.2.1-R/ .
The reports of the Study Group 1 Q19-2/1 meetings are available at the link http://www.itu.int/md/meetingdoc.asp?lang=en&parent=D10-SG01-R&question=Q19-2/1
Broaband Wireless Access
Code Division Multiple Access
Digital Subscriber Line
Everything over IP
Fiber To The Home
General Packet Radio Service
Gross Domestic Product
High Definition Television
Internet Service Provider
Internet Exchange Point
Multimedia Messaging Service
Next Generation Network
National Regulatory Authority
Public Switched Telecommunication Network
Quality of Service
Radio Frequence Identification
Significant Market Power
Time Division Multiplexing
Voice over Broadband
Voice over IP
World Telecommunication Development Conference
World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly
1. ITU-infoDev ICT Regulation Toolkit
2. WTPF-2009 Background documents and online resources, http://www.itu.int/osg/csd/wtpf/wtpf2009/
3. ITU Internet Reports 2005: The Internet of Things, http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/internetofthings/
4. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), Consultation Paper on Issues relating to Convergence and Competition in Broadcasting and Telecommunications, January 2006 (WTPF 2009 Background paper)
5. Convergence and Next Generation Networks, OECD Ministerial Background Report, 2008, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/25/11/40761101.pdf
6. ICT Regulatory News, May 2010, http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/publications/ICT-Reg-News-e.pdf
7. New Technologies and Their Impacts on Regulation, Module 7 of ICT Regulation Toolkit, March 2007, Author: Technical University of Denmark
8. VoIP: Developments in the Market,OECD,10 Jan 2006, DSTI/ICCP/TISP(2004)3/Final, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/56/24/35955832.pdf
9. A Handbook on Internet Protocol (IP)-Based Networks and Related Topic and Issues http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/special-projects/ip-policy/final/IPPolicyHandbook-E.pdf
10. The Essential Report on IP Telephony, 2003 http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/e-strategy/publications-articles/pdf/IP-tel_report.pdf
11. Convergence, IP Telephony and Telecom Regulation : Challenges & Opportunities for Network Development, with particular reference to India, Lirne.Net,2005
12. Various contribution documents of the meetings
13 Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), Consultation Paper on Issues relating to Convergence and Competition in Broadcasting and Telecommunications, January 2006 (WTPF 2009 Background paper).
14 Документ 1/009, вклад координатора БРЭ по Вопросу 19-2/1, 20 сентября 2010 года.
15 Дополнительная информация представлена на Рисунке 3.
16 Документ RGQ 19-2/1/009.
17 Convergence and Next Generation Networks, OECD Ministerial Background Report, 2008, www.oecd.org/dataoecd/25/11/40761101.pdf.
18 Извлечение из Модуля 7 "Новые технологии и их влияние на регулирование" Комплекта материалов по регулированию в области ИКТ, март 2007 г., автор: Технический университет Дании.
19 Convergence and Next Generation Networks, OECD Ministerial Background Report, 2008, www.oecd.org/dataoecd/25/11/40761101.pdf.
20 ICT Regulatory News, May 2010.
21 WTPF-2009 Backgrounder, "Convergence, including Internet-related Public Policy matters", ww.itu.int/wtpf2009.
22 Извлечение из WTPF2009 Online Resources, www.itu.int/osg/csd/wtpf/wtpf2009/resources/convergence.html.
23 Multiple Play: Pricing and Policy Trends, Working Party on Telecommunication and Information Services Policies, DSTI/ICCP/TISP(2005)12/FINAL, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 07Apr-2006, www.oecd.org/dataoecd/47/32/36546318.pdf.
24 Отчет о развитии всемирной электросвязи за 2010 год: Мониторинг целевых показателей ВВУИО.
25 Вклад Сенегала по облачным вычислениям (Документ RGQ19-2/1/6).
26 Отчет о развитии всемирной электросвязи за 2010 год: Мониторинг целевых показателей ВВУИО.
27 Комплект материалов по регулированию в области ИКТ.
28 Convergence and Next Generation Networks, OECD Ministerial Background Report, 2008, www.oecd.org/dataoecd/25/11/40761101.pdf.
31 Convergence, IP Telephony and Telecom Regulation: Challenges & Opportunities for Network Development, with particular reference to India, Lirne.Net, 2005.
32 Convergence, IP Telephony and Telecom Regulation: Challenges & Opportunities for Network Development, with particular reference to India, Lirne.Net, 2005.
33 Документ 1/INF/32.
34 Документ 1/INF/41.
35 Документ 1/INF/24.
11 INTUG is an international association of business users of telecommunications, bringing together national and multinational user associations throughout the world. They have members and contacts in all five continents.