9. serious; 10. busy; 11. careful; 12. little.
Exercise 5. Закончите предложения, поставив прилагательные в превосходную степень сравнения. Например: This building is very old. – It’s the oldest building in the city.
It was a very happy day. It was … day in my life.
It’s a very good film. It’s … I have ever seen.
She is a very popular singer. She is … singer in our country.
It was a bad mistake. It was … mistake I have ever made.
She is a very pretty girl. She is … girl I have ever seen.
He is a very interesting person. He is … person I’ve ever met.
Exercise 6. Вставьтеas…as илиso…as.
Например: My room is as light as this one. This child is not so small as that one.
1. Mike is …tall …Pete. 2. Kate is not … nice …Ann. 3. I am not … young … Pete. 4. Sergey is … old … Michael. 5. Kate is … lazy …her brother. 6. Nick’s English is not … good …his friend’s.
Exercise 7. Раскройте скобки, употребляя нужную форму прилагательного.
1. Russia is a very (large) country. 2. St. Petersburg is one of the (beautiful) cities in the world. 3. English is as (difficult) as German. 4. John is (old) than Tom. 5. Your handwriting is now (good) than it was last year. 6. What is the name of the (high) mountain in Asia?
Exercise 8. Вставьтеam, is, are.
1.The weather … very nice today. 2. These bags … very nice. 3. Can you close the window? I … cold. 4. Ann and I … good friends. 5. Ann …at home, but her children … at school. 6. I … a student and my brother … a pupil.
Exercise 9. Ответьтенавопросыосебе, используятаблицуспряженияглаголаto be внастоящемпростомвремени(Present Simple).
Например: Are you Russian? – Yes, I am. I am Russian.
1. What is your name? 2. Where are you from? 3. How old are you? 4. Are you married or single? 5. What’s your wife’s /your husband’s name? 6. How old is he / she?
Exercise 10. Поставьтевыделенныеглаголывпрошедшеепростоевремя(Past Simple), употребив, гденеобходимопосмыслу, обстоятельствавремениyesterday, last month (week) ит.п. Например: My sister is seventeen today. – My sister was seventeen yesterday.
1. We are at home now. 2. I am late for the lesson. 3. The children’s hands are dirty. 4. My son is at the library now. 5. It is a fine day today. 6. The weather is very hot in summer.
Exercise 11. Поставьтевыделенныеглаголывбудущеепростоевремя(Future Simple), употребивпосмыслуобстоятельствавремениtomorrow, next month (week) ит.п.
Например: Tom is seven today. – Tom will be seven next summer.
1. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson … two children, a boy and a girl.
2. Where is my newspaper? I don’t know. I … it.
3.An insect … six legs.
4. Ben doesn’t read much. He … many books.
5. I can’t open the door. I … got the key.
6. Quick! Hurry! We … much time.
Exercise 19. Вставьтеhad/ didn’t have/ did … have.
1. Last year I … much money. 2. What kind of car … your father … last month? 3. I was in a hurry and I … breakfast this morning. 4. … you … a good holiday in Spain? – Yes, I did. 5. She … a pen, but she … any paper to write a letter. 6. You … this book yesterday, did you?
Например: Peter…..(smoke) ten cigarettes. – Peter smokes ten cigarettes a day.
1. We usually … (have) breakfast at 9 o’clock.
2. Tina … (teach) mathematics at school.
3. I always … (go) to the University by bus.
4. My friend … (speak) four languages.
5. The Earth … (go) round the Sun.
6. My children … (like) playing football very much.
7. These shoes … (cost) a lot of money.
8. The City Museum … (close) at 5 o’clock.
Exercise 21. Поставьте предложения в отрицательной форме.
Например: I play the piano very well. - I don’t play the piano very well.
1. I play football very well.
2. My mother works hard.
3. My brother watches TV very often.
4. On Sundays we go to the restaurants.
5. Their children live in the centre of the town.
6. Every morning I drink a cup of coffee.
Exercise 22. Выберитеправильноепредложение.
1. a) Peter work in a bank.
b) Peter works in a bank.
2. a) Sally and Tim live in Madrid.
b)Sally and Tim live in Madrid.
3. a) Does she lives in a house or in a flat?
b) Does she live in a house or in a flat?
4. a) How many languages do you speak?
b) How many languages does you speak?
5. a) What time does the bank open?
b) What time does the bank opens?
6. a) Does you like ice-cream?
b) Do you like ice-cream?
Exercise23. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в PresentSimple или PastSimple, подчеркните их и переведите их.
James usually … (finish) work at 4.30 p.m.
Yesterday he … (finish) work at 4.30 p.m.
He usually … (go) home by train.
Yesterday he … (go) home by taxi.
He usually … (have) dinner at home.
Yesterday he … (have) dinner in a café.
Exercise24. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в PastSimple.
An American chef from Connecticut Louis Lassen 1) … (make) and 2) … (sell) the first hamburgers in 1895. He 3) … (call) them hamburgers because sailors from Hamburg in Germany 4) … (give) him the recipe. The students from Yale University and businessmen 5) … (love) them and 6) … (buy) them. Kenneth Louis Lassen, a grandson, still sells hamburgers in Connecticut.
Exercise 25. Выберите правильную форму глагола.
1. I … to the shop yesterday.
a) goes b) go c) went
2. Tom … ten minutes ago.
a) wake b) woke c) wakes
3. Lucy … her hat in the bus yesterday.
a) left b) leave c) leaves
4. I…..my aunt last week.
a) see b) saw c) sees
5. How often … visit your grandmother last year?
a) did you b) do you c) does you
6. My brother……a computer last week.
a) didn’t buy b) didn’t bought c) doesn’t buy
Exercise26.Составьте предложения о том, что Том делал вчера. Предложения могут быть утвердительные или отрицательные.
Например:watch /TV - Tom watched TV yesterday.
not/ drink/ coffee/ in the morning – He didn’t drink coffee in the morning yesterday.
Например:I played (play) tennis yesterday, but I didn’t win (not/win).
1. We … (wait) for a bus for a long time, but it … (not/ come).
2. That’s a nice shirt. Where … (you/ buy/ it)?
3. Ann … (see) me but she … (not/ speak) to me.
4. … (it/ rain) yesterday? - No, it was a nice day.
5. That was a stupid thing to do. Why … (you/ do/ it)?
6. She wasn’t hungry, so she … (not/ eat) anything.
Exercise28. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Present Simple или Future Simple.
Tom 1) … (play) tennis every day. He 2) … (play) tennis next Sunday. My mother 3) … (not/ work) on Sunday. My mother 4) … (not/ work) next Sunday. Where 5) … you … (go) every summer? Where 6) … you … (go) next summer?
Exercise29. Выберите правильную форму глагола.
1. How old … you be next year?
a) will b) did c) do
2. Who … meet you at the station?
a) shall b) do c) will
3. Take some sandwiches. You … have time to go to the café.
a) won’t b) will c) shall
4. If you don’t work hard you … pass your examinations.
a) won’t b) will c)did
5. Your English is good. I am sure you … pass your test.
a) shall b) will c) shan’t
Exercise 30.Поставьте глаголы в скобках в FutureSimple.
I 1) … (go) to my doctor tomorrow. He 2) … (give) me a complete examination. The doctor 3) … (take) my pulse. Then he 4) … (listen to) my heart with a stethoscope. After it he 5) … (take) my blood pressure. Then the doctor 6) … (do) a cardiogram. He is a very good doctor!
Например: You (come) to my place? - Will you come to my place?
1. … (you/ read) this book?
2. What …( you/ do) tomorrow?
3. You … (not/help) your mother tomorrow.
4. We ... (not/go) to the Zoo next Sunday.
5. … (your brother/ buy) a new computer next week?
6. Where … (your sister/ go) next year?
Exercise 32. Выберитеправильнуюформуглагола (Present Progressive).
1. Look at Ann. She … a tree.
a) climbing b) is climbing c) am climbing
2. They … for a test now.
a) are studying b) is studying c) am studying
3. Tom … the dog at the moment.
a) walks b) are walking c) is walking
4. I … my favourite book at the moment.
a) is reading b) are reading c) am reading
5. Look! They … football.
a) is playing b) are playing c) play
6. The man in the bank … money now.
a) counts b) are counting c) is counting
Exercise 33. Поставьтеглаголывскобкахв Present Progressive.
This is the dentist’surgery. A few people 1) … (wait) for a dentist. Some children 2) … (play) and their mothers 3) … (talk) to each other. The receptionist (администратор) 4) … (answer) the telephone. A young man 5) … (read) a newspaper. The nurse 6) … (come) into the room to call the next patient.
Exercise 34. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Present Simple или в Present Progressive.
Every summer Tanya and her family 1) … (go) on holiday. They usually 2) … (stay) in England but at the moment they 3) … (travel) by plane. They 4) … (go) to America. Tanya 5) … (be) very excited. She 6) … (look) out of the window and 7) … (laugh). Her brother 8) … (play) a game. He 9) … (like) airplanes. He 10) … (want) to be a pilot.
9. I don’t want to see that film again. I … (see) it twice already.
10. Alison is tired. She … (study) for two hours.
Exercise 45. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в PastPerfect.
1. She … (arrive) home by eight o’clock.
2. When I got home she … (already leave).
3. Ann … (clean) the house by 6 o’clock.
4. Mary wasn’t in the office, she … (already go) home.
5. Nick couldn’t pay the bill, he … (lose) the wallet.
6. Mr.Brown bought a new car, after he … (save) enough money.
Exercise 46. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Past Simple (did) или в Past Perfect (had done). Укажите, какое действие произошло первым.
Например: When I arrived (arrive)at the station, the train had left (leave). Had left- первое действие.
a) When I got home I 1) … (find) that somebody 2) … (break) into my room.
b) John 3) … (eat) all the cakes by the time the other children 4) … (arrive) at the party.
c) Ann 5) … (cook) dinner before her children 6)… (come) home.
d) Nick 7) … (lock) all the windows before he 8) … (leave) his flat.
e) Lucy 9) … (pass) all her exams because she 10) … (study) hard.
Exercise 47. Выберите правильную форму глагола.
1. Tom returned / had returned from the cinema at 5 o’clock.
2. Tom returned / had returned from the cinema by 5 o’clock.
3. I finished / had finished my homework at 7 o’clock.
4. I finished / had finished my homework by 7 o’clock.
5. When I came / had come home, my mother already cooked / had cooked dinner.
6. When I woke / had woken yesterday, my father went / had gone to work.
7. Yesterday I found / had found a book which I lost / had lost in summer.
8. When we came / had come to the station, the train left already / had already left.
9. Where did you work / had you worked before you entered / had entered the University?
10. He studied / had studied French before he entered / had entered the college.
11. When the uncle left / had left, Tom hurried / had hurried to the station to book a ticket.
12. When we entered / had entered the theatre the play had already begun / began.
13. The teacher understood that Lena didn’t do / hadn’t done her homework.
14. I knew that my friend hadn’t come / didn’t come yet.
15. Tom said that he got / had got his education at Cambridge.
Exercise 48. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в PresentSimplePassive.
Например: Breakfast is served (serve) in Pierrot’s Restaurant between 7 and 10.
Dinner … (serve) between 8 and 10 p.m. in Main Restaurant.
Newspapers … (sell) at the Reception Desk.
Rooms … (clean) by Maid Service daily.
Hot water … (supply) 24 hours a day.
Films … (show) every night at 10 p.m.
Telephone calls … (make) at the Reception Desk.
Exercise 49. Раскройтескобки, поставивглаголыв Past Simple Passive.
Two men 1) were seen (see) breaking into a house in my street last night. The police 2) … (call) and they arrived very quickly. One man 3) … (catch) immediately. The other escaped, but he 4) … (find) very soon. Both men 5) … (take) to the police station where they 6) … (question) separately by a police officer. The two men 7) … (charge) with burglary.
Exercise 50. Раскройтескобки, поставивглаголыв Present Simple, Past Simple и Future Simple Passive.
1. Bread … (eat) every day. 2. The letter … (receive) yesterday. 3. Nick … (send) to Moscow next week. 4. I … (ask) at the lesson yesterday. 5. Many houses … (build) in our town every year. 6. This work … (do) tomorrow. 7. These texts … (translate) at the last lesson. 8. We … (invite) to a concert last Saturday. 9. Hockey … (play) in winter. 10. His new book … (finish) next year. 11. Many houses … (burn) during the Great Fire in London. 12. Mushrooms … (gather) in autumn.
Например: We were asked a lot of questions (how many). – How many questions were we asked?
1. The coats are left in the cloakroom (where). 2. Books are returned to the library at the end of the year (when). 3. The flowers are not watered every day (why). 4. She was told the truth (who). 5. A written test will be given at the next lesson (when). 6. The film was much spoken about.
Exercise 57. Выберитеправильнуюформуглагола.
1. Yesterday we … (invite) to the restaurant by our boss.
a) are invited b) were invited c) invite
2. Look! The bridge … (repair).
a) is being repaired b) is been repaired c) has being repaired
3. The letter and the parcel … (post) tomorrow.
a) will be post b) will being posted c) will be posted
4. Henry … (know) to be a very industrious person.
a) have been known b) is known c) is been known
5. In Greece the Olympic Games … (hold) once in four years.
a) were held b) are being held c) are held
6. The problem … (study) for three years, but we haven’t got any results.
a) has been studied b)has being studied c) was studied
7. His book … (publish) next month.
a) is being publishing b) would be publish c) will be published
8. I … (bear) in a small Russian town not far from Samara.
a) were born b)am born c) was born
Exercise 58. Составьте предложения из данных слов (PassiveVoice)
Например: 200 houses/ built/ year/ were – 200 houses were built last year.
1. has/ a cure for cancer/ not/ yet/ found/ been.
2. always/ sold/ love stories/ well/ are.
3. be/ year/ a lot of/ will/ cars/ made/ new/ next.
4. arrested/ during/ four people/ yesterday’s/ were/ football match.
5. laid/ now/ the/ is/ table/ being.
6. not/ the / be/ meeting/ held/ can
Например: May I come in? I can come and see you tomorrow.
… you see anything in the darkness?
You … go when have finished your composition.
You … come in if you have taken off your boots.
Be careful. you … spill the milk if you carry it like that.
Most children … slide on ice very well.
Only a person who knows the language very well … answer such a question.
Exercise60. Вставьтемодальныеглаголыmay (might), can (could).
Например: Something was wrong with the car. he could not start it.
I’m not sure what to do tonight. I might stay at home or I might visit my friends.
I … not imagine her speaking in public. I knew that she was so shy.
You … read this book. you know the language well enough.
You … take this book. I don’t need it any more.
She asked me if she … use my telephone.
… I help you?
‘What’ s for dinner?’ ‘I don’t know yet. We … have some salad’
Exercise 61. Заполните пропуски модальными глаголами can, may, must.
Например: I have very little time. I must go.
1. You … not smoke here. 2. ‘… I take your pen?’ ‘I’m afraid not. I need it.’ 3. He … not speak English yet. 4. My boss … be in his office now. 5. This woman is an experienced driver. she … drive even a bus.
6. … I ask you a question?
Exercise 62. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на значение модальных глаголов haveto, beto.
He is to come here at five o’clock.
The train was to leave at three-fifteen.
I can’t go out tonight. I have to study for my exam.
Who is to look after the children?
It was very cold yesterday, so I had to wear a warm coat.
There is no school tomorrow, so the children don’t have to go to bed early.
Exercise 63. Заполнитепропускиправильнойформойглаголаhave to (have to, has to, had to, will have to).
Например:The car broke down so I had to go by bus.
We arrived too early so we … wait.
He is a policeman so he … wear a uniform.
If the weather conditions get any worse, the climbers … give up.
I … learn Spanish because I need it for my job.
If I don’t pass the exam, I … take it again.
The manager told us, we … reduce our lunch breaks.
Exercise 64. Заполнитепропускиправильнойформойглаголаcan (can, can’t, could, couldn’t, will be able to)
You … make an omelette without breaking eggs.
… you tell me the time, please?
Mr. Marshall is busy this week, but he … see you next week.
We told him … leave whenever he wanted to.
Allan … play chess two years ago, but now it is his favourite game.
Soon he … take part in chess competition.
Exercise 65. Заполнитепропускиправильнойформойглаголаhave to ( don’t /doesn’t have to, didn’t have to, won’t have to).
Например:It’s Sunday tomorrow so I won’t have to get up early.
We went to a restaurant yesterday, so we … cook.
Let’s clean up now, so we … do it tomorrow.
Lucy feels better now, so she … take the medicine.
You’ve got plenty of time. You … hurry.
It was very warm yesterday, so I … wear a coat.
I took the dog for a walk this morning, so you … take it out now.
A teacher is speaking to his students before a test.
“You are going to have a test today. Your test papers are on your desks. You 1) mustn’t begin until I tell you. You 2) … hurry; you have plenty of time. You 3) … speak during the test. You 4) … copy your friends’ work or open any of your books. You 5) … write in pen; if you prefer you can write in pencil. You 6) … stay when you’ve finished; you can leave if you want to, but you 7) … be noisy. Wait for your friends outside the building!
Finally, I wish you all good luck. You can begin now!”
1. To move in space calls for quite new concepts of energy. 2. To form such judgments about things depends on many observations by many people. 3. The purpose of this chapter is to describe certain properties of pure substances. 4. To prolong this discussion is to waste time. 5. The Sun is the first object to be studied by rocket astronomy. 6. All the attempts to confirm this suggestion have failed. 7. She gave him a list of a few books to be read. 8. To get to the Earth the rays of the Sun have to travel for 8 minutes. 9. To explain the problem we were interested in he demonstrated some diagrams.
Exercise 68. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на конструкцию «Объектныйпадежсинфинитивом».
1. Scientists do not consider this effect to be an experimental error of any kind. 2. He found this ratio to have about the same large value as for cathode rays. 3. Have you heard him make his brilliant speech on current events? 4. We suppose the construction of that building to be completed in a week. 5. Do you want me to tell you about this engineer’s invention? 6. In future we expect radiation chemistry to lead us to many discoveries of great interest and promise for industry. 7. They wanted us to tell them about the results of our research work. 8. They wanted the device to be examined carefully by experts.
Exercise 69. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на конструкцию «Именительныйпадежсинфинитивом»
1. A scientist is expected to know the latest work on his own speciality. 2. The importance of mathematics for all sciences is known to be growing rapidly. 3. The procedure proved to be rather difficult and not very precise. 4. Although it appears to be theoretically possible the methods do not seem to be very practical. 5. The nature of a neuron is unlikely to change. 6. The construction of the dam is certain to be completed in two months. 7. He is sure to make a brilliant report on that subject. 8. Vacuum tubes are considered indispensable in industrial control.
1. To translate a sentence is to discover its meaning and then construct a sentence in the new language. 2. There are a great many things to be said in favour of the proposal. 3. For calculation of total energy this method was found to be extremely poor. 4. To complete a journey round the sun requires nearly 29 years. 5. The aim of the book exhibition is to exchange experience and to display the finest editions. 6. The individual components appeared to be in excellent conditions. 7. Refined experiments showed the data to be not quite true. 8. The breakdown is thought to be due to the acceleration of electrons. 9. He was seen to start the engine. 10. To avoid the accident the cars had to move very slowly. 11. We know the solar constant to vary slightly from day to day.
Exercise 71. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на ParticipleI и ParticipleII в функции определения.
1. There is a growing demand for the kind of information given in these tables. 2. Many of the books reviewed are available from the library. 3. The experiment being made at our laboratory shows the action of catalysts. 4. The paper described a series of carefully controlled experiments. 5. The other paper presented at the conference dealt with sound phenomena. 6. The work described here was part of our investigation. 7. The tests reported here are very important for our research work. 8. These papers, previously unpublished, fall into two groups.
1. Making the experiment he was seriously injured. 2. Knowing the harmful effects of the rays, they took special precautions. 3. They worked using the best modern equipment. 4. Having finished his experiments, he compared the results. 5. While burning different substances combined with oxygen. 6. Having discussed chemical reactions we proceeded to the experiments. 7. The students spent the first year in the preparatory department studying Russian. 8. When combined with the oxygen of the air the match was lighted.
Exercise 73. Подчеркните независимые причастные обороты и переведите предложения.
1. The text-book provides a series of examples, the examples being graduated with a view to facilitating homework as much as possible. 2. Natural radioactivity having been discovered, many scientists became interested in it. 3. Many technical and scientific problems having been solved, the first spaceflight could be realized. 4. Large masses of substances are made up of molecules, molecules being made up of atoms. 5. The 5th of June arriving, they departed. 6. The wind having dropped, they set out to walk. 7. The vessel being pretty deep in the water and the weather being calm, there was but little motion. 8. The attendance from Western European countries was regrettably small, about half of the overseas visitors being from North America. 9. Plants grown in the dark are always colourless, chlorophyll becoming green only under the action of light.
1. Nuclear physics gives two directions for solving the energy problem. 2. Nowadays man gets nineteenths of the energy by burning valuable raw materials like oil, coal and gas. 3. His work was a success due to his experimenting so much. 4. By making their lenses of special materials, the optical experts succeeded in constructing an ultraviolet microscope. 5. The cost of transforming solar radiation into electricity is still very high. 6. The best way out of the present situation lies in producing energy by means of thermonuclear fusion. 7. We insist on their taking part in this work. 8. Walking, riding, flying, dancing, climbing and sailing are all familiar examples of motion. 9. The scientists gave up collecting more analogous data – they did not help them. 10. I think of solving this problem in another way than you did.
Exercise 75. Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения. Подчеркнитеоднойчертойгерундийидвумячертамипричастие.
1. Decreasing the temperature we slow down the reaction. 2. Efforts being made in the development of chemical industry meet with great success. 3. The delegation arrived in Moscow with the object of conducting trade negotiations. 4. A great many electron microscopes are in use today being a very useful instrument in the hands of scientists. 5. Falling is a case of motion at constant acceleration. 6. They stopped working immediately after the clock struck five. 7. Having plenty of time, we decided to walk. 8. It is no use discussing this question any longer. 9. The members of the expedition were certain of their reaching the South Pole. 10. This laboratory is not alone in making such studies. 11. Leading its own life each cell plays a part in the life of the organism. 12. Pine-trees grow in large quantities there, the soil being sandy.