Отчет мсэ-r bt. 2140-1 (05/2009)



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Appendix 2
to Part 2


1 Definitions

From Radio Regulations.

Section II – Specific terms related to frequency management

1.16 allocation (of a frequency band):  Entry in the Table of Frequency Allocations of a given frequency band for the purpose of its use by one or more terrestrial or space radiocommunication services or the radio astronomy service under specified conditions. This term shall also be applied to the frequency band concerned.

1.17 allotment (of a radio frequency or radio frequency channel):  Entry of a designated frequency channel in an agreed plan, adopted by a competent conference, for use by one or more administrations for a terrestrial or space radiocommunication service in one or more identified countries or geographical areas and under specified conditions.

1.18 assignment (of a radio frequency or radio frequency channel):  Authorization given by an administration for a radio station to use a radio frequency or radio frequency channel under specified conditions.

Section III – Radio services



1.19 radiocommunication service:  A service as defined in this Section involving the transmission, emission and/or reception of radio waves for specific telecommunication purposes.

In these Regulations, unless otherwise stated, any radiocommunication service relates to terrestrial radiocommunication.



1.20 fixed service:  A radiocommunication service between specified fixed points.

1.24 mobile service:  A radiocommunication service between mobile and land stations, or between mobile stations (CV).

1.26 land mobile service:  A mobile service between base stations and land mobile stations, or between land mobile stations.

1.38 broadcasting service:  A radiocommunication service in which the transmissions are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmission (CS).

1.39 broadcasting-satellite service:  A radiocommunication service in which signals transmitted or retransmitted by space stations are intended for direct reception by the general public.

In the broadcasting-satellite service, the term “direct reception” shall encompass both individual reception and community reception.



1.56 amateur service:  A radiocommunication service for the purpose of self-training, intercommunication and technical investigations carried out by amateurs, that is, by duly authorized persons interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and without pecuniary interest.

1.57 amateur-satellite service:  A radiocommunication service using space stations on earth satellites for the same purposes as those of the amateur service.

Section IV – Radio stations and systems

1.61 station:  One or more transmitters or receivers or a combination of transmitters and receivers, including the accessory equipment, necessary at one location for carrying on a radiocommunication service, or the radio astronomy service.

Each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.



1.62 terrestrial station:  A station effecting terrestrial radiocommunication.

In these Regulations, unless otherwise stated, any station is a terrestrial station.



1.63 earth station:  A station located either on the Earth's surface or within the major portion of the Earth's atmosphere and intended for communication:

– with one or more space stations; or



– with one or more stations of the same kind by means of one or more reflecting satellites or other objects in space.

1.66 fixed station:  A station in the fixed service.

1.66A high altitude platform station:  A station located on an object at an altitude of 20 to 50 km and at a specified, nominal, fixed point relative to the Earth.

1.67 mobile station:  A station in the mobile service intended to be used while in motion or during halts at unspecified points.

1.68 mobile earth station:  An earth station in the mobile-satellite service intended to be used while in motion or during halts at unspecified points.

1.69 land station:  A station in the mobile service not intended to be used while in motion.

1.70 land earth station:  An earth station in the fixed-satellite service or, in some cases, in the mobile-satellite service, located at a specified fixed point or within a specified area on land to provide a feeder link for the mobile-satellite service.

1.71 base station:  A land station in the land mobile service.

1.72 base earth station:  An earth station in the fixed-satellite service or, in some cases, in the land mobile-satellite service, located at a specified fixed point or within a specified area on land to provide a feeder link for the land mobile-satellite service.

1.73 land mobile station:  A mobile station in the land mobile service capable of surface movement within the geographical limits of a country or continent.
1.74 land mobile earth station:  A mobile earth station in the land mobilesatellite service capable of surface movement within the geographical limits of a country or continent.

1.75 coast station:  A land station in the maritime mobile service.

1.76 coast earth station:  An earth station in the fixed-satellite service or, in some cases, in the maritime mobile-satellite service, located at a specified fixed point on land to provide a feeder link for the maritime mobile-satellite service.

1.77 ship station:  A mobile station in the maritime mobile service located on board a vessel which is not permanently moored, other than a survival craft station.

1.78 ship earth station:  A mobile earth station in the maritime mobilesatellite service located on board ship.

1.79 on-board communication station:  A low-powered mobile station in the maritime mobile service intended for use for internal communications on board a ship, or between a ship and its lifeboats and life-rafts during lifeboat drills or operations, or for communication within a group of vessels being towed or pushed, as well as for line handling and mooring instructions.

1.80 port station:  A coast station in the port operations service.

1.81 aeronautical station:  A land station in the aeronautical mobile service.

In certain instances, an aeronautical station may be located, for example, on board ship or on a platform at sea.



1.82 aeronautical earth station:  An earth station in the fixed-satellite service, or, in some cases, in the aeronautical mobile-satellite service, located at a specified fixed point on land to provide a feeder link for the aeronautical mobile-satellite service.

1.84 aircraft earth station:  A mobile earth station in the aeronautical mobile-satellite service located on board an aircraft.

1.85 broadcasting station:  A station in the broadcasting service.

1.96 amateur station:  A station in the amateur service.

1.97 radio astronomy station:  A station in the radio astronomy service.

1.98 experimental station:  A station utilizing radio waves in experiments with a view to the development of science or technique.

This definition does not include amateur stations.



1.128 television:  A form of telecommunication for the transmission of transient images of fixed or moving objects.

1.129 individual reception (in the broadcasting-satellite service):  The reception of emissions from a space station in the broadcasting-satellite service by simple domestic installations and in particular those possessing small antennae.

1.130 community reception (in the broadcasting-satellite service):  The reception of emissions from a space station in the broadcasting-satellite service by receiving equipment, which in some cases may be complex and have antennae larger than those used for individual reception, and intended for use:

– by a group of the general public at one location; or

– through a distribution system covering a limited area.

1.134 telecommand:  The use of telecommunication for the transmission of signals to initiate, modify or terminate functions of equipment at a distance.

Section VI – Characteristics of emissions and radio equipment

1.137 radiation:  The outward flow of energy from any source in the form of radio waves.

1.138 emission:  Radiation produced, or the production of radiation, by a radio transmitting station.

For example, the energy radiated by the local oscillator of a radio receiver would not be an emission but a radiation.



1.139 class of emission:  The set of characteristics of an emission, designated by standard symbols, e.g. type of modulation of the main carrier, modulating signal, type of information to be transmitted, and also, if appropriate, any additional signal characteristics.

1.140 single-sideband emission:  An amplitude modulated emission with one sideband only.

1.141 full carrier single-sideband emission:  A single-sideband emission without reduction of the carrier.

1.142 reduced carrier single-sideband emission:  A single-sideband emission in which the degree of carrier suppression enables the carrier to be reconstituted and to be used for demodulation.

1.143 suppressed carrier single-sideband emission:  A single-sideband emission in which the carrier is virtually suppressed and not intended to be used for demodulation.

1.144 out-of-band emission*:  Emission on a frequency or frequencies immediately outside the necessary bandwidth which results from the modulation process, but excluding spurious emissions.

1.145 spurious emission*:  Emission on a frequency or frequencies which are outside the necessary bandwidth and the level of which may be reduced without affecting the corresponding transmission of information. Spurious emissions include harmonic emissions, parasitic emissions, intermodulation products and frequency conversion products, but exclude out-of-band emissions.

1.146 unwanted emissions*:  Consist of spurious emissions and out-of-band emissions.

1.146A out-of-band domain (of an emission):  The frequency range, immediately outside the necessary bandwidth but excluding the spurious domain, in which out-of-band emissions generally predominate. Out-of-band emissions, defined based on their source, occur in the out-of-band domain and, to a lesser extent, in the spurious domain. Spurious emissions likewise may occur in the out-of-band domain as well as in the spurious domain.     (WRC-03)

1.146B spurious domain (of an emission):  The frequency range beyond the out-of-band domain in which spurious emissions generally predominate.     (WRC-03)

1.147 assigned frequency band:  The frequency band within which the emission of a station is authorized; the width of the band equals the necessary bandwidth plus twice the absolute value of the frequency tolerance. Where space stations are concerned, the assigned frequency band includes twice the maximum Doppler shift that may occur in relation to any point of the Earth's surface.

1.148 assigned frequency:  The centre of the frequency band assigned to a station.

1.149 characteristic frequency:  A frequency which can be easily identified and measured in a given emission.

A carrier frequency may, for example, be designated as the characteristic frequency.



1.150 reference frequency:  A frequency having a fixed and specified position with respect to the assigned frequency. The displacement of this frequency with respect to the assigned frequency has the same absolute value and sign that the displacement of the characteristic frequency has with respect to the centre of the frequency band occupied by the emission.

1.151 frequency tolerance:  The maximum permissible departure by the centre frequency of the frequency band occupied by an emission from the assigned frequency or, by the characteristic frequency of an emission from the reference frequency.

The frequency tolerance is expressed in parts in 106 or in hertz.



1.152 necessary bandwidth:  For a given class of emission, the width of the frequency band which is just sufficient to ensure the transmission of information at the rate and with the quality required under specified conditions.

1.153 occupied bandwidth:  The width of a frequency band such that, below the lower and above the upper frequency limits, the mean powers emitted are each equal to a specified percentage /2 of the total mean power of a given emission.

Unless otherwise specified in an ITU-R Recommendation for the appropriate class of emission, the value of /2 should be taken as 0.5%.



1.154 right-hand (clockwise) polarized wave:  An elliptically- or circularly-polarized wave, in which the electric field vector, observed in any fixed plane, normal to the direction of propagation, whilst looking in the direction of propagation, rotates with time in a right-hand or clockwise direction.

1.155 left-hand (anticlockwise) polarized wave:  An elliptically- or circularly-polarized wave, in which the electric field vector, observed in any fixed plane, normal to the direction of propagation, whilst looking in the direction of propagation, rotates with time in a left-hand or anticlockwise direction.

1.156 power:  Whenever the power of a radio transmitter, etc. is referred to it shall be expressed in one of the following forms, according to the class of emission, using the arbitrary symbols indicated:

peak envelope power (PX or pX);

mean power (PY or pY);

carrier power (PZ or pZ).

For different classes of emission, the relationships between peak envelope power, mean power and carrier power, under the conditions of normal operation and of no modulation, are contained in ITU-R Recommendations which may be used as a guide.

For use in formulae, the symbol p denotes power expressed in watts and the symbol P denotes power expressed in decibels relative to a reference level.



1.157 peak envelope power (of a radio transmitter):  The average power supplied to the antenna transmission line by a transmitter during one radio frequency cycle at the crest of the modulation envelope taken under normal operating conditions.

1.158 mean power (of a radio transmitter):  The average power supplied to the antenna transmission line by a transmitter during an interval of time sufficiently long compared with the lowest frequency encountered in the modulation taken under normal operating conditions.

1.159 carrier power (of a radio transmitter):  The average power supplied to the antenna transmission line by a transmitter during one radio frequency cycle taken under the condition of no modulation.

1.160 gain of an antenna:  The ratio, usually expressed in decibels, of the power required at the input of a loss-free reference antenna to the power supplied to the input of the given antenna to produce, in a given direction, the same field strength or the same power flux-density at the same distance. When not specified otherwise, the gain refers to the direction of maximum radiation. The gain may be considered for a specified polarization.

Depending on the choice of the reference antenna a distinction is made between:

a) absolute or isotropic gain (Gi), when the reference antenna is an isotropic antenna isolated in space;

b) gain relative to a half-wave dipole (Gd), when the reference antenna is a half-wave dipole isolated in space whose equatorial plane contains the given direction;

c) gain relative to a short vertical antenna (Gv), when the reference antenna is a linear conductor, much shorter than one quarter of the wavelength, normal to the surface of a perfectly conducting plane which contains the given direction.

1.161 equivalent isotropically radiated power (e.i.r.p.):  The product of the power supplied to the antenna and the antenna gain in a given direction relative to an isotropic antenna (absolute or isotropic gain).

1.162 effective radiated power (e.r.p.) (in a given direction):  The product of the power supplied to the antenna and its gain relative to a half-wave dipole in a given direction.

1.163 effective monopole radiated power (e.m.r.p.) (in a given direction):  The product of the power supplied to the antenna and its gain relative to a short vertical antenna in a given direction.

1.164 tropospheric scatter:  The propagation of radio waves by scattering as a result of irregularities or discontinuities in the physical properties of the troposphere.

1.165 ionospheric scatter:  The propagation of radio waves by scattering as a result of irregularities or discontinuities in the ionization of the ionosphere.

For all definitions and terminology see the ITU database:

http://www.itu.int/ITU-R/go/terminology-database.

_______________



1 Ст. 5.1.3 Соглашения GE06:

"5.1.3 Цифровая запись в Плане может также быть заявлена с характеристиками, отличными от тех, которые содержатся в Плане, для передачи в радиовещательной службе или в других первичных наземных службах, работающих в соответствии с Регламентом радиосвязи, при условии что пиковая плотность мощности в любых 4 кГц вышеуказанных заявленных присвоениях не превышает спектральную плотность мощности в тех же 4 кГц цифровой записи в Плане. Такое использование не требует большей защиты, чем защита, предоставленная вышеуказанной цифровой записи".



2 High Efficiency AAC (HE AAC) audio profile is specified in “ISO/IEC 14496-3:2001/AMD 1:2003” and is accessible through the ISO/IEC website. The performance of the HE-AAC profile coder is documented in the publicly available formal verification test report WG 11 (MPEG) N 6009.

3 In a limited number of cases a parent station may feed several SFNs that may each operate on a different channel.

4 Refer http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_91853.

5 Australian planning is based on provision of a service at 80% of locations within 200 m by 200 m areas. A 4.5 dB correction factor is applied to convert from a 50% of locations to an 80% locations field strength value.

6 The original 1999 values were adopted following protection ratio measurements made in 1998 using the “traditional” wanted-to-wanted protection ratio measurement approach, rather than the more recent C/(I+N) approach that appeared in Recommendation ITU-R BT.1368-1 (and later revisions).

7 Brazilian TV Stations are classified into Special, A, B or C Class according to the ERP (Effective Radiated Power) that they are authorized to transmit by Anatel. The ERP limits for each class are defined in the national technical regulation for television broadcasting.

8 Basic Plan for Digital Television Channel Distribution (PBTVD) is the official name designated for the Digital Television Allotment Plan in Brazil.

9 http://sbtvd.cpqd.com.br/cmp_tvdigital/divulgacao/anexos/76_146_Modelo_Ref_PD301236A0002A_RT_08_A.pdf.

10 http://www.anatel.gov.br/Portal/documentos/biblioteca/resolucao/2005/res_398_2005.pdf.

11 http://www.anatel.gov.br/Portal/documentos/biblioteca/resolucao/2005/anexo_res_398_2005.pdf.

12 http://www.anatel.gov.br/Portal/documentos/biblioteca/resolucao/2005/anexoii_res_398_2005.pdf.

13 http://www.anatel.gov.br/Portal/documentos/biblioteca/resolucao/2005/res_407_2005.pdf.

14 http://www.anatel.gov.br/Portal/documentos/biblioteca/resolucao/2005/anexo_res_407_2005.pdf.

15 http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil/_Ato2004-2006/2006/Decreto/D5820.htm.

16 http://www.forumsbtvd.org.br.

17 http://www.mc.gov.br/sites/600/695/00001879.pdf.

18 http://www.forumsbtvd.org.br/cronograma.php.

19 http://www.abnt.org.br/tvdigital/TVDIGITAL.html.

20 Advanced Television System Committee (ATSC), Recommended Practice – A/111, “Design of Synchronized Multiple Transmitter Networks.”

21 Advanced Television System Committee (ATSC), Recommended Practice – A/111, “Design of Synchronized Multiple Transmitter Networks.”

22 Salehian, K., Guillet, M., Caron, B. and Kennedy, A: On-channel repeater for digital television broadcasting service. IEEE Trans. Broadcast., Vol. 48, 2, p. 97-102.

23 Salehian, K., Caron, B. and Guillet, M. Using on-channel repeater to improve reception in DTV broadcasting service area. IEEE Trans. Broadcast., Vol. 49, 3, p. 309-313.

** The terms associated with the definitions given by Nos. 1.144, 1.145 and 1.146 shall be expressed in the working languages as follows:

Numbers

In French

In English

In Spanish

1.144

Emission hors bande

Out-of-band emission

Emisión fuera de banda



1.145

Rayonnement non essentiel

Spurious emission

Emisión no esencial



1.146

Rayonnements non désirés

Unwanted emissions

Emisiones no deseadas





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