Тексты научно-технической направленности на немецком языке……………………………………………………………с. 30
Варианты контрольных работ по немецкому языку к представленным текстам…………………………………….с. 36
Критерии оценивания письменных контрольных работ по дисциплине «Иностранный язык»…………………………с. 40
Библиография и интернет ресурсы…………………………с. 42
Данная методическая разработка предназначена для оказания методической помощи преподавателям иностранного языка образовательных организаций среднего профессионального образования в организации самостоятельной и аудиторной работы студентов. Методическая разработка способствует развитию общих и, частично, профессиональных компетенций в различных видах чтения, аудирования на иностранных языках (английском, немецком), обогащения словарного запаса, расширения кругозора, повышения культурного уровня студентов. Целью предлагаемого учебного материала является формирование навыков самостоятельной работы при переводе текстов общего технического характера и базовых текстов по строительной специальности со словарем.
Перед преподавателями иностранного языка, работающими в сфере профессионального образования, часто встает вопрос введения языкового материала по профилю программ подготовки. Чтобы сделать переход от общей лексической и бытовой тематики плавным, считаем правильным начинать работу с текстов общей научно-технической направленности. Наилучшим образом для этого подходят биографии знаменитых ученых, общественных деятелей, тексты из истории строительства и изобретениях и явлениях науки и техники. Таким образом, к уже знакомым лексическим единицам добавляются технические и профессиональные термины. Кроме того, такие тексты подходят для всех технических специальностей.
Разработка включает девять текстов общей технической направленности на английском языке, возможные варианты контрольных работ к данным текстам, тексты из истории строительства с разноуровневыми заданиями к ним. Далее следуют пять текстов на немецком языке с вариантами заданий к контрольным работам. Данные варианты контрольных можно использовать как при проведении рубежного контроля знаний, так и в рамках дифференцированного зачета по дисциплине. В последнем разделе представлены критерии оценивания письменных контрольных работ, разработанные и применяемые нами при проверке.
Тексты научно-технической направленности на английском языке.
Albert Einstein, a well-known German physicist and mathematician, was born in Germany on March 14, 1879. His unusual ability in mathematics and physics began to show itself at a technical school in Zurich.At the age of 21, after four years of university study, Albert Einstein got a job as a clerk in an office. But already in 1905 he made revolutionary discoveries in science. He published three papers in the field of physics and mathematics. In the first he explained the photoelectric effect by means of Planck's quantum theory. The second paper developed a mathematical theory of Brownian motion. He presented his third paper on "Special Theory of Relativity" to a physical journal. Einstein expressed his theory in the equation E = me2, roughly that energy equals mass times the square of the speed of light.
All over the world scientists read the work with great surprise. Few physicists understood its importance at that time. Everybody wanted to know as much as possible about the author. Which institute did he teach in? What laboratory did he do his research in?
Einstein's fame among scientists grew slowly but surely. For a few years he lived in Prague where he worked as a professor. When he came to Prague, he often told his students: "I will always try to help you. If you have a problem, come to me with it, we will solve it together."
He liked questions and answered them at once, for there were no simple or foolish questions for him. He spoke much with his students about scientific problems and his new ideas. His advice to students was, "Don't take easy problems."
In 1921 Einstein got the Nobel Prize in physics not for the theory of relativity but for a logical explanation of the photoelectric effect.
In 1922 he became a foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences for his outstanding contributions to physics and mathematics.
On March 14, 1979 by UNESCO decision all people throughout the world celebrated the birth centenary of the great 20th century scientist.
Пояснения к тексту:
Brownian Motion – Броуновское движение
Contribution – вклад
Decision – решение
Discovery – открытие
Equal – равный
Equation – уравнение
Establish – устанавливать
Explain – объяснять
Relativity – относительность
Research – исследование
Solve – решать
By means of – посредством
D.I. Mendeleyev – pride of Russian science
The list of spheres of knowledge which Mendeleyev's genius touched upon is enormous. Chemistry, physics, earth science, metrology, economics, metallurgy land much else. Mendeleyev's legacy comprises 25 volumes, a third of them devoted to chemistry.
D.I. Mendeleyev, the outstanding Russian scientist, was born in Tobolsk in 1834. In 1850 at the age of 16 he entered the Pedagogical Institute in St. Petersburg to study chemistry. Five years later he graduated from it with a gold medal and was invited to lecture on theoretical and organic chemistry at St. Petersburg University. To continue his studies and research Mendeleyev was sent to Germany in 1859. While living abroad he made a number of important investigations.
The year 1868 was the beginning of his highly important work "Fundamentals of Chemistry". When working at the subject Mendeleyev analyzed an enormous amount of literature, made thousands of experiments and calculations. This tremendous work resulted in the Table of Elements consisting of vertical groups and horizontal periods. Mendeleyev was the first to suggest a system of classification in which the elements are arranged in the order of increasing atomic weights. The main idea of the Periodic System is the idea of periodic repetition of properties with the increase of the atomic weights. Arranging all the existing elements in the Table Mendeleyev had to overcome great difficulties, as a considerable number of elements wеге unknown at that time and the atomic weights of 9 elements (out of 63) were strongly determined. Thanks to his investigations Mendeleyev was able to predict not only the existence of a few unknown elements but their properties as well. Later the elements predicted were discovered.
More than 350 works created by Mendeleyev, deal with a great many subjects. Combining theory, with practical activities he carried out enormous research in coal, iron and steel industries in Russia. He died in 1907 at the age of 73.
The achievements in chemistry and physics at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century made it necessary to reconstruct the Periodic Table taking into account new discoveries.
Time is the severest judge in science. After more than 100 years of its existence, the Periodic Law has preserved its full value and is being constantly developed with each new discovery.
Пояснения к тексту:
achieve v -— достигать
Achievement n— достижение
amount n—- количество, величина
arrange v — располагать
coal n — уголь
combine v — соединять
consist (of) v — состоять (из)
create v— создавать, творить
deal with (dealt) v — иметь дело с
determine v —определять
enter v — поступать
graduate v— заканчивать
investigate v — исследовать
investigation n— исследование
law n — закон
order n — порядок
overcome v — преодолевать
predict v — предсказывать
repetition n — повторение
result in v— кончаться, иметь результатом, приводить к
suggest v — предлагать
Sources of power
The industrial progress of mankind is based on power: power for industrial plants, machines, heating and lighting systems, transport and communication. In fact, one can hardly find a sphere, where power is not required.
At present most of the power required is obtained mainly from two sources. One is from the burning of fossil fuels, i.e. coal, natural gas and oil. The second way of producing electricity is by means of generators that get their power from steam or water turbines. Electricity so produced then flows through transmission lines to houses industrial plants, enterprises, etc.
It should be noted, however, that the generation of electricity by these conventional processes is highly uneconomic. Actually, only about 40 per cent of heat in the fuel is converted into electricity. Besides, the world resources of fossil fuels are; not ever-lasting. On the other hand, the power produced by hydroelectric plants, even if increased many times, will be able to provide for only a small fraction of the power, required in the near future. Therefore much effort and thought is being, given to other means of generating electricity.
One is the energy of hot water. Not long ago we began utilizing hot underground water for heating and hot water supply, and in some cases, for the generation of electricity.
Another promising field for the production of electric power is the use of ocean tides. Our engineers are engaged in designing tidal power: stations, of various capacities. The first station utilizing this principle began operating in Russia on the Barents Sea in 1968.
The energy of the sun which is being used in various ways .represents a practically unlimited source.
Using atomic fuel for the production of electricity is highly promising. It is a well-known fact, that one pound of uranium contains as much energy as three million pounds of coal, so cheap power can be provided wherever it is required. However, the efficiency reached in generating power from atomic fuel is not high, namely 40 per cent.
No wonder, therefore, that scientists all over the world are doing their best to find more efficient ways of generating electricity directly from the fuel. They already succeeded in developing some processes which are much, more efficient, as high as 80 per cent, and in creating a number of devices capable of giving a higher efficiency. Scientists are hard at work trying to solve these and many other problems.
Electric Power Systems
Electric Power Systems are the systems for the transformation of other types of energy into electrical energy and the transmission of this energy to the point of consumption. The production and transmission of energy in the form of electricity have important economic advantages in terms of cost per unit of power delivered.
Electric power systems also make possible the utilization of hydroelectric power at a distance from the source. Alternating current (AC) is generally used in modern power systems, because it may be easily converted to higher or lower voltages by means of transformers. Thus, each stage of the system can be operated at an appropriate voltage. Such an electric power system consists of six main elements: the power station; a set of transformers to raise the generated power to the high voltages used on the transmission lines; the transmission lines; the substations at which the power is stepped down to the voltage on the subtransmission lines; the subtransmission lines; and the transformers that lower the subtransmission voltage to the level used by the consumer's equipment.
In a typical system the generators at the central station deliver a voltage of from 1000 to 26,000 volts (V).
The unique telescope
Пояснения к тексту:
association n — объединение
naked eye — невооруженный глаз
candle flame — пламя свечи
polish v — полировать
clear a — ясный
recent a— недавний; зд. последний
dome n— купол
remote a— удаленный
image n— изображение
tower n— башня
mirror n— зеркало
view n — вид, картина
For more than four centuries telescopes have been the Earth's window on the universe. But the views they give have been limited by the size and shape of the instruments. Now scientists in many countries are developing bigger telescopes that will enable astronomers to look deeper into the corners of the universe. The main principle of a telescope is: the larger the mirror, the clearer and brighter the reflected image will be.
The world's largest optical telescope is in the North Caucasus at 2,100 metres above the sea level. It was designed and created at the Leningrad Optical and Mechanical Association (LOMO). The main part of the telescope is the mirror which is six metres in diameter and weighs 42 tons. The mirror's area is about 30 square metres and it has been polished to the highest degree of accuracy. The telescope is housed in a tower with a revolving 1,000-ton dome.
Many countries have developed large-size optical telescopes in the recent 30 years, but this telescope is the most powerful. The following gives an idea of what the telescope can do. With this telescope a candle, flame, can be seen from a distance of 25,000 km. Its power is 40-50 million times greater man that of a naked eye. With this telescope astronomers can investigate the most remote bodies in the universe. It will help to solve many important scientific problems, thus making a great I contribution to the mankind's knowledge. Astronomers have used the telescope to take several unique photographs of stars. The development of this unique telescope is a great achievement of Russian science and technology.
Discovery of Volta
In the beginning of the year 1800 Volta made the first electric battery. He made it of copper and zink disks which he placed alternately. Above each pair of disks he placed a piece of wet cloth.
This first battery was a form of 'dry battery'.
Later Volta made a wet battery. Thus Volta showed that by bringing two different metals into contact he could produce an electrical charge. He discovered by experiments that if he placed copper and zink in sulphuric acid, he could produce a continuous flow of electricity.
He discovered the electric current and with this discovery a new era began in electric inventions.
Benjamin Franklin, one of the most outstanding 18th-century American politicians, participated in the writing of the Declaration of Independence. He negotiated the treaty by which Great Britain recognised its former 13 colonies as a sovereign nation. Benjamin Franklin framed the US Constitution, secured financial and military aid from France during the American Revolution.
In Europe Benjamin Franklin was widely known in scientific circles for his reports of electrical experiments and theories. Franklin invented a stove, the lightning rod and bifocal eyeglasses. He helped to establish such institutions as a fire company, a library, an insurance company, an academy, and a hospital in America.
Franklin published newspapers and was involved in politics. In 1753 he became deputy postmaster general, in charge of mail in all the northern colonies.
In London before the House of Commons Franklin defended the right of the colonies to levy internal taxes by their own legislation. Between 1765 and 1775 Franklin published 126 newspaper articles. In March 1775, he left London. On his arrival in Philadelphia he was delegated to the Second Continental Congress. Franklin took part in the drafting of the Declaration of Independence.
In September 1776, when Benjamin Franklin arrived in Paris, he became hero of France, symbol of freedom from the feudal past. His portrait was everywhere. At the age of 79 Franklin was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Franklin died at the age of 84. Philadelphia honoured him, and in France praise was given to the man who personified enlightenment and freedom.
Thomas Alva Edison
Thomas Alva Edison was born on February 11, 1847 in Ohio. He began to work when he was twelve years old. His first job was a newspaper boy on a train. He soon began to produce his own newspaper. It was about the size of a handkerchief. He gathered news, printed and sold the newspapers all by himself. He had a small laboratory in the baggage car of this train. There he carried out experiments. Edison kept records of all his experiments. Then Edison got lessons in telegraphy and the next five years he worked as a telegraphist in various cities of the US and Canada.
In 1877 Edison invented a phonograph. This talking machine both recorded and played back. It resembled the present day tape recorder more than a record player.
Then Edison became interested in the electric-light bulb for lightning streets and buildings. It had taken Edison and his assistants thirteen months to produce the incandescent lamp, but he already knew, that success awaited it.
Edison carried out experiments from morning till night. All his inventions were the results of his endless work. He sometimes made thousands of experiments. For months he slept no more than one or two hours a day. Yet he had time to read not only scientific books. He was fond of Shakespeare and Tom Pain. He had over 10000 volumes in his library.
Edison continued to work all through his long life. He attributed his success not so much to genius as to hard work. Edison's inventions include the phonograph, or gramophone, the megaphone, the cinematograph, the improved lamp of incandescent light, many greatly improved systems of telegraphic transmission and numerous other things.
Inventors and their inventions
New inventions are appearing every day to make our lives easier, longer, warmer, speedier and so on. But only a few inventors design a new machine or product that becomes so well-known that the invention, named after its creator, becomes a household word. Here are ten famous inventors and the inventions that are named after them:
1. Ladislao Biro, a Hungarian artist who emigrated to Argentina. In about 1943 he invented the ball-point pen or biro.
2. John Bowler, a London halter who designed the hard round hat known as the bowler in about 1850. It has become the symbol of British male respectability. And you can still see businessmen wearing bowlers in the City, the centre of London's commerce.
3. Louis Braille (1809—1852), born at Couvray, France. He became blind as a child. In 1824 he developed his own alphabet patterns known as Braille by which the blind could read by touch, based on a French army officer's invention for reading messages in the dark.
4. Samuel Colt (1814—1862), an American gunsmith. He designed a pistol, patented in 1836, with a revolving barrel that could fire six bullets, one after the other. The Colt was the first of its kind. Many "six-shooters" came later.
5. Rudolf Diesel (1858—1913), a German engineer who invented the diesel engine in 1897 and so began a transport revolution in cars, lorries and trains.
6. Hans Wilhelm Geiger (1882—1945), a German nuclear physicist. From 1906—1909 he designed a counter for detecting radioactivity. This was the beginning of modern geiger counters.
7. Charles Mackintosh (1766—1843), a Manchester textile chemist who, in 1823, developed a rubber solution for coating fabrics which led to the production of waterproof raincoats or mackintoshes.
8. Samuel Finley Breeze Morse (1791 — 1872), an American portrait painter who invented the telegraphic dot-dash alphabet known as morse code.
9. Louis Pasteur (1822—1895), a Frenchman who was both a chemist and a biologist. Pasteurisation is a method of sterilising milk by healing it.
10. Charles Rolls, a car salesman who with the engineer Henry Royce created the world-famous Rolls-Royce car. Rolls died in 1910.
Варианты контрольных работ по английскому языку к представленным текстам.
Переведите текст со словарем.
Albert Einstein, a well-known German physicist and mathematician, was born in Germany on March 14, 1879. His unusual ability in mathematics and physics began to show itself at a technical school in Zurich.At the age of 21, after four years of university study, Albert Einstein got a job as a clerk in an office. But already in 1905 he made revolutionary discoveries in science. He published three papers in the field of physics and mathematics. In the first he explained the photoelectric effect by means of Planck’s quantum theory. The second paper developed a mathematical theory of Brownian motion
He, questions, answered, at, liked, and, them, once
Переведите текст со словарем.
The list of spheres of knowledge which Mendeleyev’s genius touched upon is enormous. Chemistry, physics, earth science, metrology, economics, metallurgy land much else. Mendeleyev’s legacy comprises 25 volumes, a third of them devoted to chemistry.
The year 1868 was the beginning of his highly important work “Fundamentals of Chemistry”. When working at the subject Mendeleyev analyzed an enormous amount of literature, made thousands of experiments and calculations. This tremendous work resulted in the Table of Elements consisting of vertical groups and horizontal periods. Mendeleyev was the first to suggest a system of classification in which the elements are arranged in the order of increasing atomic weights.
Ответьте на вопрос к тексту.
How many volumes does Mendeleyev’s legacy comprise?
Составьте предложение из данных слов:
the, Russian, was, in, outstanding, scientist, born, Tobolsk, in 1834
Переведитетекст со словарем.
One can hardly find a sphere, where power is not required.
At present most of the power required is obtained mainly from two sources. One is from the burning of fossil fuels, i.e. coal, natural gas and oil. The second way of producing electricity is by means of generators that get their power from steam or water turbines. A promising field for the production of electric power is the use of ocean tides. Our engineers are engaged in designing tidal power: stations, of various capacities.
Ответьте на вопрос к тексту.
What is the promising field for the production of electric power?